In my job as a Cornell Cooperative Extension educator, I get to meet a lot of people who are involved in or want to be involved in agriculture. Farmers who are established and have grown up on a farm usually have a network of family, friends and industry in place and available for advice, expertise and assistance.
The extension service still provides these farmers with the research and higher level expertise that is sometimes needed to improve their management, but they usually have the basics down already.
The small and beginning farmer is not always as lucky. Many small farms start out as a hobby and expand as interest grows or as is often the case, animals start to multiply. On a recent farm visit, I met with a small farmer who had a whole menagerie of livestock on his place; cows, goats, chickens and who knows what else. He had accumulated his livestock over time as his family’s interests had evolved, and he enjoyed the variety.
As is often the case with small farms, family members play a large part in determining the mix of agricultural activities. Caring for small livestock is a great way to teach young children responsibility and start educating them about animal science and the facts of life. I also encounter many folks who move to the country to reconnect with nature and live a simpler life. Many often have a family farm that has remained in the family and wish to make it productive once again.
Small farming is by and large an endeavor that is started to improve a family’s quality of life; not necessarily to produce income, but to live a more sustainable and fulfilling lifestyle. Often someone buys a home in a rural area that includes some acreage and raising some livestock and vegetables fulfills an idealistic dream of becoming a farmer.
However, some thought on how to make good decisions and choices is important. Farming is hard work whether it is small or large scale and, like any endeavor, should be given a great deal of thought prior to jumping right in.
The first step in starting a small farm should be to evaluate your resources. The environment, the land and your existing facilities will have a large impact on your ability to produce crops or livestock. Many times, if the land has been abandoned as farmland or is being sold for housing, it has been done for reasons that may limit its agricultural value.
A farm’s soils quality, drainage and pH all have an effect on productivity. Old farmland that has been abandoned for some time often has poorly drained soils, stony soils and low fertility. Rehabilitation of such farmland, while not impossible, will take a lot of effort and investment to regain its productivity.
Older barns and sheds, while picturesque, are often in need of expensive repairs and have a multitude of safety issues. Livestock need good water and pastures; pastures need good fences. Repairing fences and renovating pastures take a lot of labor. Determining ahead of time what kind of enterprise is appropriate for the resources available will prevent surprises and disappointment later.
Another important resource is your time. Different farming activities require different levels of labor and investment. Growing vegetables requires more inputs and labor than growing Christmas trees; just as dairy farming requires more investment and labor than raising beef cattle. Since most small farmers start out part-time, choosing an enterprise with excessive time requirements may not work out well.
Livestock such as goats and sheep are often a good choice for new farmers. Small, friendly and easy to handle, small ruminants have moderate labor and investment requirements. With appropriate shelter and pasture, sheep and goats can help to renovate abandoned pastures and fields by grazing and browsing brush and weeds that cattle will often refuse to eat.
With a variety of breeds, sheep and goats can both produce milk, fiber and meat for a small homestead. Larger livestock such as dairy or beef cows require more feed, more pasture and bigger facilities as well as more labor.
With such a wide range of options, it is sometimes hard for the new farmer to decide what direction to take. The desire to farm often leads to hasty decisions and potential disaster. What you might not realize is that Cornell Cooperative Extension is here to help. For over 100 years, Cooperative Extension has been bringing the research-based knowledge of Cornell University’s College of Agriculture to the general public.
If you need help evaluating their resources, navigating the rules and regulations, learning about marketing farm products, or just need a little more information about different areas of crop and livestock production, feed free to contact me at the Clinton County Extension office at 561-7450 or email firstname.lastname@example.org.
Peter Hagar, agriculture program educator, Cornell Cooperative Extension Clinton County, 6064 Rt. 22, Plattsburgh, 12901. Call 561-7450.