Peter Hagar is an agricultural educator with Cornell Cooperative Extension in Clinton County, 6064 Rt. 22, Plattsburgh, N.Y., 12901. Phone 561-7450.

Making good hay a challenge

Make hay when the sun shines. That sounds easy, but when the forecast predicts possible thunderstorms every day for what seems like weeks on end, it doesn't give the farmer much confidence.

While larger farms usually harvest their hay crop by chopping it only partially dried and store it by packing it into silos or plastic tubes, many smaller farmers still harvest and store dry hay. 

About a couple of weeks back, I saw an opportunity to mow some hay. It had rained that morning, but the day had brightened and although the forecast cautioned of rain in a couple days, I hooked up the mower and spent a couple hours mowing hay.

Being the first hay of the year, it would hopefully be the best. I would bale the hay into small square bales for our ponies and once we get enough for them, the rest would be extra for the beef cows.

As luck would have it, the rain held off and the next two days were fairly decent drying weather. After tedding the hay to fluff it up and raking it into long spiraling windrows for baling, I had spent many hours on our old tractor. When the last bale was baled, the hay all loaded, and the wagons were backed into the shed, it was a very satisfying feeling. Within an hour of completing the whole process, it clouded up and started to sprinkle.  

Without the weather technology that we enjoy today, it probably would not have turned out as well. Not too long ago, farmers would have to gamble on the weather, using experience, the farmer's almanac and local weather history. Today, farmers and growers have access to an amazing number of weather forecasting and monitoring services.

The National Weather Service has a network of local weather forecast offices covering the United States. Local weather forecasts and live radar images are available via the Internet at any time. All this available technology helps farmers make informed decisions about when to mow hay and plan their harvest. And while it is a great benefit, it can sometimes be frustrating to see the forecast change from one hour to the next.

For the small part-time farmer putting up dry hay for a few horses, goats or beef cows, the weather is still a major obstacle. Timing the harvest for the weekend or arranging a few days off to bale hay does not always work out.

Baling dry hay usually requires a couple of hot, sunny days to bring the grass down from 70 percent to 15 to 18 percent moisture content. While waiting for more consistent hot and dry weather in July would be more reliable, getting the first cutting in the barn in late May or June yields a much higher quality feed.

After a certain point, feed value and digestibility drop on a daily basis as the hay matures. For adult beef cows or mature horses, later cut hay may be sufficient to meet their maintenance requirements, but young or growing livestock and horses need higher protein and energy forages to thrive.

One pitfall that many small and beginning farmers make is over investing in haying equipment. While making good hay is very satisfying, the cost of all the equipment necessary to reliably mow, rake and bale a small crop may not be cost effective. Buying hay from a larger farmer who already has the land base, the equipment and know how is often a better deal in the long run.

One benefit of purchasing hay is that you will also be importing and adding nutrients to your pastures and fields.

Since many old hayfields no longer have consistent manure applications, soil nutrients can become depleted, productivity declines, weeds move in and hay feed quality drops considerably. In order to keep fields productive, old fields can be rejuvenated by manure or fertilizer application, application of lime to optimize pH and re-seeding.

As always, soil nutrient testing is recommended to get an accurate picture of your soil resource prior to investing the considerable time and money it takes to perform these actions.

Regardless of whether you raise your own hay or buy it from a neighboring farm, harvesting quality forages for dairy cows, beef cattle, horses and other livestock has and will continue to be an important part of farming in Clinton County each year. Our cool, moist climate is ideal for the growing of forages such as grass, clover and alfalfa that feed the dairy cattle that are the mainstay of our local agricultural economy.

For more information about hayfield and pasture renovation, contact Cornell Cooperative Extension at 561-7450 or email

Peter Hagar, agriculture program educator, Cornell Cooperative Extension Clinton County, 6064 Rt. 22, Plattsburgh, 12901. Call 561-7450.